Sani Abdullahi, lecturer at the College of Administrative and Social Sciences, Kaduna Polytechnic, concurred on most of the factors, saying, “The persistence of insecurity in northern Nigeria can be attributed to a complex interplay of factors, including historical, socio-economic, and political elements. Ethnic and religious tensions, economic disparities, and weak governance structures contribute to the challenges. Additionally, the infiltration of extremist groups, such as Boko Haram, and the struggle for resources further exacerbate the situation.”

He further added, “Furthermore, the historical context of ethnic and religious divisions in northern Nigeria has fueled long-standing grievances, contributing to a fertile ground for unrest. Issues related to land use, cultural differences, and historical disputes have not been adequately addressed, perpetuating a cycle of tension. The lack of comprehensive social and economic development programmes in the region has left many communities vulnerable to recruitment by extremist groups, who exploit these grievances for their purposes.

“Political challenges also play a role, with corruption and weak governance structures undermining the effectiveness of security measures. In some cases, political interests and power struggles at both federal and state levels have hindered a unified and decisive response to security issues. Additionally, the vast and porous borders in the region allow for the movement of armed groups across borders, complicating efforts to contain the threat.”